Penguins are endemic to the southern hemisphere, the breeding season of penguins depend upon the species and the habitat. Every species of penguins lay one egg at a time except the emperor and the king penguins. The egg usually is kept on the feet of the males where the egg gets enough warmth by the brood patch present in the male parent.
The female and male penguin’s first bond and then mate to lay an egg the size of a softball on the ice in midwinter. The male thrusts the egg up onto his feet, where it is protected and cushioned by the male’s “brood patch,” a warm fold of feathers and his bulging stomach which rests atop the feet. The egg remains in that place for 9 weeks until it hatches during the coldest months of the Antarctic winter.
Both female and male penguins protect their eggs and newly hatched chicks by enveloping them under a fold of body skin. During the reproductive cycle of the first part the mother penguin has to fast, but after eggs are laid, they go away to fatten them.